. President Wilson introduced his 'Fourteen Points' at the Peace Conference , Division over the Treaty in the USA - Democrats negotiated it, Republicans less keen on it.
Volstead Act - Prohibition 1919
. In 1919 the USA passed the Eighteenth Amendment to the US constitution: "a ban on the manufacture, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors" but the consumption of alcohol was still legal . Described as a 'noble experiment'.
Palmer Raids 1919
. Palmer Raids 1919-1921 Attorney General Mitchell Palmer set up a division headed by J Edgar Hoover to look into ‘Reds’ in government.: . 200,000 + investigated . Thousands deported or jailed . Most were innocent, many arrested for looking like a radical
League of Nations 1920
. Republican leader in Congress, Lodge wanted changes to League & Wilson refused to compromise. . Republicans had a majority and refused to support the League. . Many wanted a return to isolationism, to be away from European problems. . Without USA the League was weakened, plus no Germany or Russia. . Without the USA sanctions were often meaningless, as countries could trade with the USA
Women's Right to Vote 1920
. Women won the right to vote in 1920 . Some women became more independent in the 1920s - the 'flapper'
Steel Strike ends 1919
. After WWI many people lost their jobs as govt work for the war stopped. 21 January 1919: 35,000 shipyard workers on strike 6 February 1919: general strike in Seattle with 60,00 workers on strike “Reds” were blamed (though no evidence that Reds were involved) & the mayor got the police and troops on the streets. Striking workers went back to work in 1920
. The 1920s saw numerous new devices come to the market including: . refrigerators . washing machines . vacuum cleaners . dishwashers . frozen food
First radio broadcast 1920
. The first radio news programme was broadcast on 31st August, 1920 . In the 1920s over 10 million radios were sold. Over 50 million people were regularly listening to the radio, with hundreds of stations across the country, listening to news, sports events, drama & music inc. jazz.
The 'good' bootlegger
. Roy Olmstead become a bootlegger whilst serving as a police officer . "My dad thought that prohibition was an immoral law. So he had no compunction about breaking that law.. And Dad's particular job was the bagman for the police department. He decided that patrolmen would get so much and no more per week; sergeants would get so much; lieutenants, captains and so on. So he was the paymaster for the Olmstead Gang". Edwin T Hunt
. William McCoy, a Florida boat captain established the 'rum running trade' . He shipped cases of rum from Nassau, in the Bahamas into Florida, making over $15,000 per trip
. Henry Ford set-up the first assembly line in 1913 . Factories set up assembly lines to produce goods more quickly & cheaper - mass production . Each worker did only one or two jobs. Henry Ford used assembly lines to make cheap cars (Model T)
Emergency Immigration Act 1921
. Emergency Immigration Act 1921 . limited number of immigrants to 3% of those in the country in 1910. . therefore favoured immigrants from Western Europe
Sacco & Vanzetti arrested 1921
Sacco & Vanzetti Trial 1921 . Found guilty of armed robbery & murder. in 1921. There were witnesses who said they were not even there when the crime happened. The judge did not like the fact they were anarchists (against government). . Appeals were dismissed. . There were protests from all around the world.
Harding becomes president, 1921
. Warren Harding sworn in as 29th US President
4 March 1921
Fordney-McCumber Act 1922
. The US govt. passed the Fordney-McCumber Act 1922 which increased tariffs (taxes) on goods imported.
. This made products made in the USA cheaper so people bought US goods.
Coolidge becomes President 1923
. Calvin Coolidge sworn in as 30th US President
3 August 1923
Marcus Garvey deported, 1923
Marcus Garvey . Founded UNIA Universal Negro Improvement Association. . He stated blacks should not be part of white society, they ought to do business only with other blacks. . Black Americans would return to Africa, via his shipping line, the ‘Black Star.’ . Garvey was arrested for fraud and deported in 1923.
Immigration Act 1924
. Immigration Act . limited immigration to 2% (from 3%) . designed to stop Eastern & Southern Europeans
John Scopes Trial, 1924
. John Scopes was as a biology teacher in Tennessee, who taught about evolution, which was banned. In the 'Monkey Trial' which followed Scopes was fined $100, but most Americans thought the Christian Fundamentalists who wanted the law, were being ridiculous. . Biology text books avoided the word ‘evolution’ for many years afterwards. Trial showed the growing differences between traditional christians and the new belief in science. A battle between the old and the new.
Dawes Plan, 1924
. USA loaned Germany $200 million dollars, enabling Germany to rebuild its economy allowing it to pay its reparations
Klu Klux Klan, 1924
. By 1924 the KKK had a membership over over 5 million
Al Capone leader of Chicago gang, 1925
. The most famous of all the gangsters. Became leader of Chicago gang in 1925. .He controlled all the sales of alcohol in the city after he had his rival Moran & six others killed.
Sacco & Vanzetti executed 1927
. Sacco & Vanzetti were executed. in 1927, despite in 1925 another man confessing to the robbery & murder.
Hollywood 'talkies', 1927
. Sacco & Vanzetti were executed. in 1927, despite in 1925 another man confessing to the robbery & murder. . Cinemas appeared in every town & city in the USA . A weekly visit was normal . Movies were silent until 1927 . Stars included: Charlie Chaplin, Greta Garbo and Rudolph Valentino . Films began to be made in Hollywood, Los Angeles
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
. USA and other major countries agreed not to go to war with each other
St Valentines Day Massacre, 1929
. The 'St. Valentines Massacre' in 1929, shocked the USA. with seven of Bugs Moran's gang shot by Al Capone's men. It was the one of many shootings across cities in the USA . No one knows how many people Al Capone had killed, some say over 200. . Reporters followed him around like a movie star. . It is thought he made £60 million a year. . Police could not convict him of any murders as nobody would say anything against him, fearing for their lives.
14 February 1929
Al Capone found guilty
. Al Capone found guilty of tax evasion and sentenced to 11 years in prison
. Recognised that crop prices had been in decline for a number of years . Federal Farm Board would purchase surplus crops to keep the prices higher . BUT farmers realised they could keep selling their surplus so increased production with greater use of fertilizers and mechanisation
Stock market falls, 1929
. Stock market falls as companies over the summer reported lower profits
5 September 1929
Stock market rebounds, 1929
. Stock market prices rise as brokers buy 'cheaper' shares and people 'buy on the margin'
6 September 1929
Share prices fall
. Stock market prices fall rapidly
21 September 1929
.Panic hits as 13 million shares are sold, wiping $9billion off the value. . Banks buy shares to stop the panic.
24 September 1929
. More panic on Wall Street as 16 million shares are sold . People and banks instantly become bankrupt . People 'buying on the margin' couldn't pay back their loans . Banks went bankrupt
29 September 1929
. President Hoover introduced tax cuts worth $160 million to encourage people to buy to increase demand
Reconstruction Finance Construction
. 1931: Reconstruction Finance Construction set up to help businesses and banks with loans plus help for the unemployed with shelter, clothing & food
Big project spending
. Hoover set up a fund of $400 million to build big infrastructure projects like the Hoover Dam to create jobs and stimulate the economy
Share prices down
.Shares are down on average 40% in one month Share prices 1929: (cents) Company Sept Nov US Steel 279 150 Standard Oil 83 48 General Motors 182 36 Brooklyn Gas 248 99 Westinghouse 289 102
Mid November 1931
Emergency Relief & Reconstruction Act
1932: Emergency Relief & Reconstruction Act gave $1.5 billion in loans to states to help them build projects to create jobs.
By 1932 the US economy had was in a depression . Unemployment went from 1.5 million to 12.8 million in 1933 (average 25% ) . Wealth of the country (Gross National Product) fell by 50% . Banks closed in their thousands inc. Bank of US in New York (30% of New Yorkers lost) . Companies went bankrupt (100,000 by 1933) . Farmers income fell by 50%. Examples: 1919 prices compared to 1932: Cotton 353 cents to 0.65 cents - Wheat $2.16 to $0.38 - Corn $1.51 to $0.310
Social Impact . Unemployment: people lost homes etc. got food from charities . Suicides: 20,000+ committed suicide in the years 1930-1933 . Hoovervilles: people lived in shanty towns built out of rubbish . Farmers: thousands of farmers lost their farms as they could not pay their bank loans . Hoboes: thousands of unemployed men, travelled the country looking for jobs
1932 Presidential Election
President Hoover: Republican (16 million votes) . Business to create jobs not government . USA would recover in time But: . Seen by many as dull & not caring . Blamed for Wall St. Crash & Depression . Seen as not doing enough to help people
Franklin D. Roosevelt: Democrat (23 million votes) . Had polio as a child, so seen as a fighter . Helped people as Governor of New York . Excellent public speaker . Gave people hope for the future . Promised a New Deal
Emergency Banking Act
. Reopened good banks with federal loans if needed . 75% of banks reopened within 3 days . Money and gold got back into circulation . Smaller were merged into larger banks
9 March 1933
. Brought rules and regulations to Wall Street . Companies on the stock exchange now had to declare details of the company - profit, loss etc. verified by independent auditors
First New Deal 1933 - 1934
. Civilian Conservation Corps CCCGive work to young people on conservation projects
. Home Owners Loan Corporation HOLCHelp home owners who could not pay their mortgages
. Agricultural Adjustment Administration AAASupport farmers to make a profit
. National Recovery Administration NRAEncourage business to pay higher wages & charge fair prices
. Federal Emergency Relief Admin FERAMoney given to the states to help unemployed & homeless people
. Tennessee Valley Authority TVA To help the Tennessee Valley area which was very poor
Second New Deal 1935 - 1936
. National Labour Relations Act NLRReplaced the NRA. Increase trade union membership.
. Social SecurityActSSA Pensions for people 65+
. Soil Conversation ActSCA To help tenant farmers & look after the soil.
. National Housing ActsNHA To help low income families. Help with mortgage payments.