. God or the stars & planets caused illness
Spontaneous Generation Theory
. decaying matter creates microbes & eggs & maggots
. bad air & bad smell caused illness & diseases (miasma)
looking for scientific explanations
Development of microscopes
scientists now able to see microbes
microbes were the cause of decay & not the result. Microbes were in the air.
. people found it hard to believe that tiny microbes in the air could cause disease
Vaccinations: .Typhoid 1896 . Tuberculosis 1906 . Tetanus 1927 . Whooping Cough 1952. Polio 1954
Making penicillin work
team in Oxford 1940
seeing the potential of Fleming’s penicillin
they worked on purifying it to make it usable
one of the team used freeze drying to purify penicillin
could not make enough penicillin
Wanted to treat injured soldiers in WWII
US govt. gave $80 million to drug companies when USA joined the war in 1941.
By 1944 penicillin in mass production able to kill a variety of germs inside the body inc. blood poisoning in war wounds
Fleming, Florey & Chain
awarded Nobel Prize in 1945
supposed to be for the unemployed but full of the very poor, old, sick & disabled.
Campaigners wanted better help for these people.
Church & Charities
built hospitals & cared for the poor
pay into a doctor’s sick club every week to get treatment when needed
Pay for a doctor & be treated at home inc. surgery
situation improved with local councils & towns paid for hospitals
still thousands of sick people in the workhouse rather than a hospital
Quality varied across the country
Role of women before 1845
Role of women in medicine very restricted:
Limited to home care of the family
There was no university open to women to
However, women had a good reputation for the knowledge of natural herbal remedies
Women were nurses, but it was a profession with a very low standing
Hospitals were for the poor, as the rich got treated at home when they were ill
Things did not change for the better straight away even after Elizabeth Garrett’s success.
Six women studied medicine at Edinburgh University, but then they would not graduate them.
They went to Zurich & Dublin to complete their medical degrees.
passed a law to say all medical degrees were open to women.
Still a number of restrictions on women doctors for many years
Women only 24% of doctors in England & Wales
Over 90% nurses are female
Even after everything that nurses did during WWI, they were
still not a legal group.
Women got paid less than men doing the same jobs in hospitals etc.
Women doctors were often forced to give up their jobs when
they got married.
Discrimination against women continued after WWI.
Whilst hospitals etc said jobs were open to women, not many women were given jobs.
Rare for women doctors in civilian life at the start of WW2.
Very few joined RAMC, but some did. It was controversial as women doctors had to examine male soldiers particularly when they were leaving the army at the end of WW2 to make sure they had no diseases.
in the C19th cities in Britain grew rapidly.
Overcrowding, poor sanitation
(no sewers), pollution, poor housing etc
infectious diseases were common & they spread quickly:
. typhoid fever
. governments believed in leaving things as they were - that it is was not their business to get involved.
This attitude slowly changed over time as research showed the need for govt. to do something. As people got the right to vote, govt’s were forced to listen to what people wanted.
Diseases increasingly affected the rich as well as the poor, so that helped change the rich people’s attitude to public health.
Appointed to design a sewer system for London.
Difficult to get the money needed until the:
Great Stink 1858
The River Thames was next to Parliament.
The smell was overwhelming.
The MPs now granted
the money he needed. The London Sewers were completed in 1866.
Improvements in technology helped Bazalgatte as he needed large engines to pump water through the sewers
(they lasted nearly 100 years!)
Smallpox vaccinations were available for free, but still not everyone
So in1852 the government made
By 1900 improvements
. clean water supplies
. rubbish collection
Laissez-faire had come to an end.
The government were now expected to
improve the health of the people.
NOT public health but improved the standard of living for people, therefore improve their health & well being…
All part of the governmentmbeing more proactive
in people’s livesn(end of laissez-faire)
Worker Compensation Act 1906
. workers got money if injured at work
. miners work only 8 hours a day
. half a day off each week
. govt. helped people find jobs
BUT: jobs often temporary or part time
Beverage Report 1942:
Need social reforms to tackle ‘Five Giant Evils’
. minimum level of social & health care for all
. social insurance - paid by state & individual
. others can also provide health & social care
Opposition to the NHS:
. 64% of doctors did not want to work for the govt. - so they were allowed to have private patients
. Many Conservative MPs were against the NHS
. Some people felt local councils were better placed to run hospitals than central govt.
. Many people did not want to employed by the govt.
. Some said NHS should be paid by insurance not taxation
Developments before 1914
Few medical developments were new in World War I.
Existing knowledge & inventions were often improved upon or used on a large scale for the first time.
. invented before the war by Hugh Owen Thomas
. discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Roentgen
. blood groups
were discovered in 1901 by Karl Landsteiner an Austrian.
In 1907 Reuben Ottenburg in New York did the first blood transfusion. Had no way of storing the blood without it clotting.
. French & German doctors had been developing skin graft techniques before WWI
Surgery improved a great deal during the war because of the huge numbers of operations performed
BUT: less research in other areas of medicine as demand for surgeons
was so high
. use of plasma first suggested in 1918
. anti tetanus serum first used in WWI
. vaccine developed in 1924
. developed from WWI & the work of Gillies
. discovered in 1928,
but not able to make penicillin in large enough quantities, until WWII
, people were wanting good quality life for everyone, inc. medical care
. National Health Service
free to everyone, paid for by National Insurance Contributions
. doctors & nurses etc paid by the govt.
. sick pay, pensions & unemployment benefit for everyone