Click the Youtube link to access the GCSE History channel, where numerous relevant clips have been uploaded.
Check out the 'Cold War' playlist
. Stalin wanted to kill German officers so
they could not start another war
. discussions about the borders for Poland
. USSR wanted Poland's borders moved,
wanting Polish land
. USSR wanted Eastern European countries to be under their
'sphere of influence'
. Polish leaders imprisoned & communists
. USA not tell Stalin about the atomic bomb
Second atomic bomb
Nagasaki - 9th August 1945
40,000 - 80,000 killed
Many died months after
Damage restricted by hillsides around Nagasaki
National Security Act 1947
. Department of Defence
. National Security Council
. Criminal Intelligence Agency (CIA)
USA giving money and military help to countries to fight communism
Truman said world was now divided:
free = USA not free = USSR
USA was now committed to Containment
Greece & Turkey got money from the USA to fight communists.
USA was scared if one country went communist its neighbour might go communist and then spread everywhere.
Greece & Turkey
. Support for Greece and Turkey to fight the communists after Britain could no longer afford to help
. USA / France / UK joined their zones to form one country
. 23rd June allies introduced a new currency 'DeutscheMark'
. 24th June Stalin ordered West Berlin to be cut-off - blockaded
Allies had a choice: give up on West Berlin or supply it from the air.
The Berlin Airlift began on 26th June 1948
Start: 26th June 1948
Finish: 12 May 1949
Needed to supply 2 million people with everything they needed to live.
Around 277,000 flights
Flight crews, not get out in Berlin - unloaded the planes then took off straight away.
Only 12 crashes, killing 31
2.3 million tons of supplies - 65% of cargo was coal
Candy Bombers: Crews threw sweets out of the planes to children
Soviets harassed the planes but did not risk shooting down a plane.
By 1949 these countries became communist controlled
& came under the influence of Stalin:
Poland . Czechoslovakia . East Germany . Hungary
Romania . Bulgaria . Albania . Yugoslavia
Dropping the atomic bomb
Survivor of Hi=roshima
Winston Churchill was no longer PM in Britain, when he gave the speech, on 5th March 1946, in the USAbut was considered a hero in the USA. His opinions were ‘highly regarded’.
In that speech he famously noted that
“from Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent”.
Events in Greece and Turkey - the potential spread of communism, alarmed Britain and the USA. The communist party in Greece was gaining support and the spread of communism was a genuine concern.