Conflict and tension between East and West, 1945 - 1972

Timeline of events


Conflict and tension between East and West, 1945 - 1972: supporting resources


  • Student resources

    Our comprehensive resource for this topic is available from our TES shop.

    The resource offers great value for money as it can be reproduced for school use.

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    Covers:

    1. Origins of the Cold War

    2. The development of the Cold War

    3. Transformation of the Cold War


    Over 100 pages

    Every topic comprises:
    . comprehensive and thoughtfully laid out set of notes
    . a varied range of exercises and actives
    . exam style questions
    . recommended media

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  • Films & Documentaries

    Numerous films portray the Cold War.
    Below are some of our recommendations.
    Be beware that some content my be inappropriate for your class. Be check before showing.

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  • YouTube

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    Check out the YouTube channel:
    GCSE History for selected recommended viewings.



Part One: Origins of the Cold War


  • End of World War II

    Tehran Conference


    Tehran Conference mainly talked about military issues, but Poland's borders were discussed. USA/GB wanted Stalin's help in defeating Germany - Stalin used this to get his way over controlling Eastern Europe after the war.

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    Stalin (USSR)
    Roosevelt (USA)
    Churchill (UK)

    Agreement
    Germany

    . Operation Overlord (D-Day) approved
    . work closely together to defeat Germany
    . Germans to return from Eastern Europe
    Turkey
    . get Turkey on their
    side against Germany

    Tensions
    Germany
    . Stalin wanted to kill German officers so
    they could not start another war
    Poland
    . discussions about the borders for Poland


    November 1943

    Yalta Conference


    Yalta Conference was designed to discuss post war Europe.
    Churchill believed that he could trust Stalin regarding free elections in Poland.

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    Churchill (UK)
    Roosevelt (USA)
    Stalin (USSR)

    Agreement
    Germany

    . disarmed
    . split into 4 zones
    . pay reparations

    Poland
    . free elections
    +
    . USSR to fight Japan
    . United Nations to replace League

    Tensions
    Poland
    . USSR wanted Poland's borders moved,
    wanting Polish land
    . USSR wanted Eastern European countries to be under their
    'sphere of influence'


    sentiment_very_satisfied
    February 1945

    Potsdam Conference


    Britain had a new prime Minister & USA a new president at the conference.
    Aim was to decide what to do with Germany, peace treaties & the
    consequences of war.

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    Attlee (UK)
    Truman(USA)
    Stalin (USSR)

    Agreement
    Germany

    . Nazi party banned
    . equipment taken as reparations
    . Germans to return from Eastern Europe
    Poland
    . borders agreed
    Vietnam
    . agreed to divide into North & South

    Tensions
    Poland
    . Polish leaders imprisoned & communists
    take over
    Atomic bomb
    . USA not tell Stalin about the atomic bomb


    sentiment_very_satisfied
    10 April 2022

    Dropping of the atomic bombs


    Atomic bomb
    Considered a demonstration bombing to show the Japanese the power. Decided not to show to keep element of surprise.
    Targets were selected.
    Hoped after one atomic bomb drop Japan would surrender, therefore
    casualties less than invasion.
    No US deaths compared with up to 1 million if the US invaded Japan

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    First atomic bomb
    Hiroshima - 6th August 1945
    Killed 90,000 - 150,000 +
    Many died months after 70% of
    the city destroyed
    Japanese govt. gave no
    public response about
    bomb & continued the war.

    Second atomic bomb
    Nagasaki - 9th August 1945
    40,000 - 80,000 killed
    Many died months after
    Damage restricted by hillsides around Nagasaki


    August 1945
  • The Iron Curtain and the evolution of East - West rivalry

    Long telegrams


    Long telegram from George Kennan
    US Embassy in Moscow
    USSR was building up its military for war against USA
    Stalin wanted to destroy capitalism

    sentiment_very_satisfied
    February 1946

    Iron Curtain Speech


    Churchill made a speech in the USA saying:
    Communism was against democracy & freedoms
    Stalin wanted to spread communism around the world

    Stalin replied saying:
    Churchill was trying to start a war
    Eastern Europe wanted communism

    5 March 1946

    Long telegram


    Novikov telegram from
    USSR Embassy in USA
    USA not into co-operation with USSR
    USA wanted to dominate the world
    USA was preparing for war against USSR

    sentiment_very_satisfied
    September 1946

    Germany


    Germany caused lots of disagreements
    Reparations:
    USA said USSR went against agreements
    Rebuilding Germany:
    USA wanted to rebuild Germany
    USSR wanted to keep Germany weak

    Democracy:
    USA wanted free & open elections in Germany
    USSR did not want free & open elections

    1946

    Truman Doctrine


    National Security Act 1947
    Established:
    . Department of Defence
    . National Security Council
    . Criminal Intelligence Agency (CIA)


    Containment
    USA giving money and military help to countries to fight communism
    Consequences:
    Truman said world was now divided:
    free = USA not free = USSR
    USA was now committed to Containment

    Domino Theory
    Greece & Turkey got money from the USA to fight communists.

    USA was scared if one country went communist its neighbour might go communist and then spread everywhere.


    Greece & Turkey
    . Support for Greece and Turkey to fight the communists after Britain could no longer afford to help


    1947

    Marshall Plan


    USA helped Europe rebuild after the war
    USA sent:
    . grants & loans
    . equipment
    . goods

    USA got:
    . countries to buy their goods
    . chance to invest in Europe
    . allegiance from European countries so less likely to become communist

    Consequences
    . Western Europe not become communist
    . Europe start trading again - good for Europe & USA

    . Europe became divided between: East & West (Iron Curtain)
    . Stalin said Marshall Plan was to control W.Europe

    April 1948

    Berlin Blockade & Airlift


    . USA / France / UK joined their zones to form one country
    . 23rd June allies introduced a new currency 'DeutscheMark'
    . 24th June Stalin ordered West Berlin to be cut-off - blockaded

    Allies had a choice: give up on West Berlin or supply it from the air.

    The Berlin Airlift began on 26th June 1948


    Airlift Facts
    Start: 26th June 1948
    Finish: 12 May 1949

    Needed to supply 2 million people with everything they needed to live.
    Around 277,000 flights
    Flight crews, not get out in Berlin - unloaded the planes then took off straight away.
    Only 12 crashes, killing 31

    2.3 million tons of supplies - 65% of cargo was coal
    Candy Bombers: Crews threw sweets out of the planes to children
    Soviets harassed the planes but did not risk shooting down a plane.


    26 June 1948

    Soviet control of Eastern Europe


    By 1949 these countries became communist controlled
    & came under the influence of Stalin:

    Poland . Czechoslovakia . East Germany . Hungary
    Romania . Bulgaria . Albania . Yugoslavia


    Buffer zone
    Eastern European countries to act as
    a military ‘buffer zone’ between Germany and the USSR.
    Power vacuum
    With the end of German rule many countries lacked government & law & order.
    Soviet 'sphere of influence'
    Stalin saw this as an opportunity to extend his influence over others - 'world communism'.
    Red Army
    With the Red Army in Eastern European countries Stalin knew there was little the West could do to get him out - except by using atomic bombs.

    sentiment_very_satisfied
    1949

    Division of Germany


    Germany was run by the occupying countries:
    USA, UK, France and USSR until 1949.
    Different countries had different ideas about what Germany should look like in the future

    USA
    . wanted Germany to be poor and mainly a farming country.
    UK
    . did not want to spend money on helping Germany
    USSR
    . took goods from Germany as compensation, and placed communists
    in control


    West Germany
    Federal Republic of Germany
    1948 elections, a government
    was formed
    20 September 1949 became FRG
    1949 elections: communists won 5.7%
    East Germany
    German Democratic Republic
    1946 elections: socialists won
    USSR controlled the socialists
    7 October 1949 became GDR
    1950 elections: socialists won 99%

    1949

Part Two: The development of the Cold War


  • Significance of events in Asia on superpower relations

    Soviet - China Relations


    Need for co-operation:
    . tensions with USA
    . atomic bombs
    . formation of NATO
    Mao travelled to Moscow to meet with Stalin where they signed:
    Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance
    Military: if either attacked the other would come to support
    Economic: Soviet’s loaned $300 million + gave technical support
    China needed support to develop its industry - Soviet experts lived and worked in China

    January 1950

    Korean War


    Invasion of the South

    The North Korean People’s Army invaded across the 38th parallel with 75,000 troops.

    This was a civil war - North v South, but it quickly became a ‘proxy’ war between the two superpowers: USA v USSR.

    UN action over the invasion by North Korea
    The United Nations Security Council met on 25th June, 1950, in response to North Korea’s invasion.

    They issued UN Security Resolution 82:
    The resolution condemned the "armed attack on the Republic of Korea by forces from North Korea", while calling for "the immediate cessation of hostilities" and for "the authorities in North Korea to withdraw forthwith their armed forces to the 38th parallel".

    The vote was 9 - 0. Under normal circumstances the USSR would have vetoed the resolution, but the Soviet Union was boycotting the United Nations Security Council.

    Votes: USA, UK, France, China + Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Yugoslavia, Norway
    Soviet Union (absent)

    Peace and an armistice

    The Chinese & Koreans agreed to an armistice, which was signed on 27 July 1953 by them and the United Nations led by the USA.
    This was temporary until a peaceful settlement could be reached.

    As part of the armistice the following was agreed:
    . stop all fighting
    . POWs could decide where to go - North or South
    . a new border was agreed and a demilitarisation zone
    . establishment of a Military Armistice Commission (MAC) to ensure the truce held

    25th June 1950

    Peaceful co-existence


    Two years after Stalin died Nikita Khrushchev became the new leader in the USSR.
    Khrushchev announced a policy of: Peaceful Co-exisyence
    Some of his ideas included:. Defence spending needed to be reduced

    . Nuclear war was unthinkable
    . Soviet economy needed be be improved & modernised
    . Eastern European countries should be allowed to make some of their
    own decisions. more dialogue with the West including a summit with the USA
    . Third World countries need to be 'won over' to socialism/communism. met with Tito, the leader of Yugoslavia & apologised to him for Stalin's
    Khrushchev famously denounced some of Stalin's policies in a speech. Of Stalin he said:.
    . he had gone too far with his purges
    . Cominform was an unnecessary way of controlling Eastern European countries
    He wanted to 'deStalinise Eastern Europe'

    1959

    Hungarian uprising


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    The period after Stalin's death 'Peaceful Co-existence', under Khrushchev brought
    some changes to many communist countries in Eastern Europe.
    Many countries wanted to 'reform' some of the communist policies & systems.
    Hungary brought in a more reformist leader - Imre Nagy
    Uprising is put down as Red Army (200,000) + 2,500 tanks invades Hungary
    Nagy appeals to President Eisenhower for help
    Janos Kadar becomes Prime Minister

    October 1956
  • Cold War crises, 1958-1972

    Arms Race


    USA drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

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    August 1945

    Arms Race


    USSR test first atomic bomb

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    1949

    Formation of NATO


    North Atlantic Treaty Organisation 1949
    Aim:
    . NATO fight only if attacked - attack one NATO country attack al
    Concerns:
    . USA was concerned about USSR in Eastern Europe and the Berlin Blockade
    NATO members
    . USA . Canada . UK . Belgium . Denmark . France . Iceland . Italy . Luxembourg . Netherlands . Norway . Portugal later ….. Greece, West Germany & Turkey

    NATO was generally ahead in the nuclear arms race but behind in numbers of sol


    1949

    Arms Race


    USSR detonates first hydrogen bomb


    1953

    Formation of Warsaw Pact


    Aim:
    . to co-ordinate a defensive alliance and protect themselves from the USA/NATO
    Concerns:
    . formation of NATO and the nuclear arming of Western countries


    Poland . Czechoslovakia . East Germany . Hungary
    Romania . Bulgaria . Albania . Yugoslavia


    1956

    Space Race


    USSR launched first space satellite into orbit around the earth called ‘Sputnik 1’. Transmitted a short wave signal ‘beep, beep’ for 22 days
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    October 1957

    Space Race


    USA forms NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) after the Soviets launch Sputnik.
    Formed to speed up the USA's space programme to compete with the USSR

    1958

    Arms Race


    . USA launches first nuclear powered submarine
    . can fire a Polaris missile from underwater with an atomic weapon
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    1960

    Space Race


    • Yuri Gagarin became the first human to fly in space on 12 April 1961, in his Vostok 1 spacecraft. He orbited Earth once and landed near the Russian city of Saratov.
    • Gagarin’s flight pushed the Soviet Union ahead in the Space Race with the United States. It also pushed President John F. Kennedy to declare that NASA would land humans on the Moon by 1970.
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    April 1961

    Space Race


    In February 1962 John Glenn became the first American to orbit the earth
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    February 1962

    Space Race


    China tests uranium bomb in 1964, it was the first of 45 tests that the Chinese carried out

    February 1962

    Space Race


    . Americans Apollo 11 mission landed on the moon and Armstrong became the first man on the moon
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    21 July 1969
  • The 'Thaw'

Part Three: Transformation of the Cold War


  • Berlin Wall

    Berlin Wall


    1953: East Germans need permission to travel to West Berlin

    1953

    Berlin Wall


    1957: Leaving East Germany without permission = 3 years in prison

    1957

    Berlin Wall


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    1953: East Germans need permission to travel to West Berlin
    1957: Leaving East Germany without permission = 3 years in prison 1958: Soviet made several demands
    The West refused the demands & Khrushchev backed down
    1960: West Germany is bad for East German economy & it must be corrected according to East German leader
    1961: June Summit - Khrushchev tries to pressure the new US president, Kennedy, by insisting the Western powers leave Berlin. Kennedy pledges to support West Berlin
    1961: 15th June - East German leader Walter Ulbricht said he no intention of erecting a wall
    1961: 25th July - US President J.F. Kennedy spoke about the need to hold onto West Berlin and that NATO should react to any threat from the Soviets.
    1961: 12th August - East German leader orders a barricade to separate Berlin
    Barbed wire used followed by concrete wall.

    12 August 1961

    U2 Incident


    1. USA began flying the U2 spy plane without President Truman knowing about it
    2. President Truman banned flights when he found out about
    3. U2 flights started again in 1956 when President Eisenhower
    gave his permission. He wanted to find out about the nuclear missiles in Russia
    4. The U2 could fly at 73,000 feet at 460 knots but was not
    5. In May 1960 the USSR shot down a U2 spy plane and captured the pilot, Gary Powers
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    Paris Summit between USSR and USA collapsed as a result of the U2 incident

    May 1960
  • Tensions over Cuba

    Bay of Pigs


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    Invasion
    . CIA trained 1,400 exiles
    . invaded with support of bombers flown by Cubans
    . invasion easily stopped & 1,200 exiles were captured
    Consequences
    .
    USA: JFK hugely embarrassed - seen as a bully
    . Cuba: moved Castro closer to the USSR
    . USSR: supports Cuba, gains an ally (friend) in Central America

    1961

    Missiles on Cuba


    Khrushchev decides to place missiles on Cuba in 1962 for several reasons

    Central America
    . Supporting Cuba was seen as important
    in establishing an ally
    (friend) in Central
    America & try to limit
    or stop US influence
    Kennedy weak
    . Some saw Kennedy as a young inexperienced President who could be pushed around

    . He was seen as being weak after the unsuccessful Bay of Pigs operation

    Missiles in Turkey
    . US missiles in Turkey gave the US a strategic military advantage
    . Khrushchev hoped that his missiles in Cuba could be used to negotiate
    the removal of the Turkish missiles plus US position in Berlin


    1962

    Spy planes


    US spy planes spot observe Soviet personnel and weapons on Cuba

    August 1962

    Spy planes


    USA U2 spy plane takes photographs of the construction of nuclear missile launch site in Cuba.
    USSR ships seen in the Atlantic Ocean heading to Cuba, with what looked like missiles on board.
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    14 October 1962

    Missile sites


    . By 16 October it had become clear that the Cubans were allowing the Soviets to establish missile sites on the island
    . Meeting of EX COM where President Kennedy was warned the missile sites could be operational by the end of October
    . Kennedy given choices as what to do
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    16 October 1962

    Quarantine


    . Kennedy does a TV address to the American public announcing that there is proof that the Soviets have missiles on Cuba
    . Kennedy informs the Americans and the worlds that he is imposing a quarantine on Cuba - Soviet ships carrying missiles will be turned back
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    22 October 1962

    Khrushschev's response


    Khrushchev's response was to ignore the blockade & did not admit to having
    missiles on Cuba. It said it was merely helping Cuba defend itself & the USA was
    taking the world to war.

    23 October 1962

    Blockade works


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    Soviet ships stop and turn around at the blockade line, except one carrying oil

    24 October 1962

    Khrushchev's first 'letter'


    Khrushchev sent a letter saying that the USSR would remove the missiles if:
    USA stopped the blockade & USA promise not to invade Cuba in the future

    26 October 1962

    Khrushchev's second 'letter'


    Khrushchev second letter adds a demand that US missiles should be removed from
    Turkey. A U2 spy plane is shot down & JFK is pushed to retaliate. USA agree to first
    letter demands then JFK sends a secret message to Khrushchev agreeing to remove
    Turkey missiles.

    27 October 1962

    Removal of missiles


    Removal of missiles from Cuba agreed by Khrushchev

    28 October 1962
  • Czechoslovakia

    Dubcek's Action Programme


    Dubcek
    . Action Programme is launched
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    April 1968

    Censorship abolished


    Censorship was abolished & political prisoners freed.
    People demanded more than Dubcek’s Action Programme.
    Soviet forces stay in Czech after Warsaw Pact exercises.

    June 1968

    Soviet's react


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    Soviet troops at the Czech border.
    Warsaw Pact meets to discuss situation in Czech. &
    warn leaders

    July 1968

    Soviet's take action


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    . Dubcek speech said there was no going back.
    . Warsaw Pact agreed to stop ‘anti-socialist forces’ & backed the Brezhnev Doctrine

    20 August Soviet & Warsaw Pact forces invade Czech
    21 August Dubcek arrested & flown to Moscow & signed Moscow Protocol (Soviet troops to stay
    in Czech)
    Workers & students confronted invading troops.
    700 - 1000 Czechs were killed
    September/October
    70,000 plus fled from Czech
    New govt formed headed by
    Husak.

    August 1968

    New government formed


    . 70,000 plus fled from Czech
    . New govt formed headed by Husak.

    September - October 1968
  • Easing of tension

    Hotline


    Kennedy & Brezhnev
    Set up a telephone ‘hotline’ after the Cuban Missile Crisis which nearly led to a nuclear war.
    Messages sent by telegraph were slow and liable to be misinterpreted.
    The USA said of the hotline that it will “help reduce the risk of war occurring by accident or miscalculation.”

    August 1963

    Limited Test Ban Treaty


    Limited Test Ban Treaty 1963
    USA, USSR & GB signed the test ban in Moscow.
    France& China refused tosign.

    The ban ‘prohibited the testing of nuclear weapons in outer space, underwater or in the atmosphere.’

    1963

    Outer Space Nuclear Treaty 1967


    Outer Space Nuclear Treaty 1967
    . USA, USSR & GB signed the treaty (+100 others after ’67).
    . Bans nuclear weapons being used in space

    1967

    Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons 1968


    Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons 1968
    Non-nuclear-weapon states agree never to have nuclear weapons and the nuclear-weapon states agree to share the benefits of peaceful nuclear technology and to aim for nuclear disarmament and the ultimate

    1968

    US-China relations


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    Nixon visited Mao in China in February in 1972, the first US president to go to communist China.
    The US dropped its opposition to China joining the United Nations.

    1972

    SALT I


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    Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) 1972
    Talks about limiting weapons began in 1969, with the treaty
    signed in Moscow: The treaty:the arms race.
    . limited the number of launching missile sites to two per side
    . no more ICBM/SLBMS built for 5 years
    . Other things decided at the summit:
    . Further talks for another Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
    . Brezhnev agreed to allow Jews to emigrate
    , Signed an agreement to work together in space
    . Co-operate on environmental protection

    1972